There are two approaches for the digital transformation of learning activities. The most straightforward approach is to create digital metaphors for each real-world learning activity. For example, a classroom lecture is transformed into a synchronous video lecture, or a final hand-written exam is proctored with synchronous video monitoring and is scanned for uploading.

Thinking with metaphors and making analogies is the most natural way to approach new issues and challenges. Nevertheless, the new digital environment is not natural at all, so it might be worth approaching it with a different mindset.

An alternative approach is to consider the basic qualities of digital media and of learning activities. Learning is considered as high frequency communication among teacher and students with continuous assessment. Digital media are considered as enablers of augmented communication and assessement. In practice, the experience is a mix of the flipped classroom with x- and c-MOOC elements.

Assuming that learning modules keep the same number of student credits and with the requirement of obligatory, but minimal, physical presence, then, the design space of digital transformation for learning is well-defined. Teaching hours are transformed into extented online office hours, which are focused on discussion and on assessment of performance on asynchronous learning material that is available on courseware systems.

Courseware systems are enhanced with asynchronous video lectures and reading materials, which are augmented with high-frequency and interleaved multiple-choice questions. In this way, large (30+ students) midterm assessments should take place with computers on premises, at least twice per semester and well before the end of the course. Moreover, they are augmented with learning analytics that visualize student progress and might be further enhanced with gamification elements.

Overall, the main challenge is not digital technology itself, but its proper understaning and employment by teachers and students. The above approaches are not mutually exclusive, but can be combined depending on the degree of willingness to change.